Research:

Fort Carson 25 year plan for Training range PROVING the REAL plan will start by 2010:

Revenue stream of  Money for expansion: (LRAM, ITAM, ARCA)

2003-2005 - Walker #1, 2, 3 Easement

2002-2005 - Expansion effort for Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site

2010 Completed (100%) expansion of Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site


Rare and endangered plant list for the Comanche National Grasslands and Pike Nationals Forest

List of threatened or endangered mammals, including the Kit Fox, Swift Fox, and Prebles Meadow Jumping Mouse

"Ground Stone Gorgets from the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado"

By Christopher Lintz

Abstract

Two and perhaps three ground stone gorgets have been recovered from prehistoric sites within the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site of southeastern Colorado. This paper summarizes the age, affiliation, distribution and function of gorgets, and calls attention to this distinctive type of implement that most frequently occurs some 400 to 600 km east of their place of discovery. Their occurrence in the western portion of the High Plains has interesting implications for social contacts and interactions during the Archaic or Woodland periods.


At the Penrose Library: "Tracks Through Time" : prehistory and history of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado

   Loendorf, Lawrence L. 978.896 L825T c1996.

1 copy available at Carnegie- Special Collections History Book Stacks

"Models of Prehistoric Site Location Near Pinon Canyon", Colorado. In Condie, C.J. (ed.) The Archaeology of Northeastern New Mexico. Albuquerque: New Mexico Archaeological Council. pp. 347-370.

Preliminary results from the predictive modelling project at Pinon Canyon are summarised. (KLK)

Kvamme, K.L. 1990

"Predictive Cultural Resource Modelling at Pinon Canyon": 1984-85. In Andrefsky Jr., W. (ed.) An Introduction to the Archaeology of Pinon Canyon, Southeastern Colorado. Volume I: Background and Methods. Denver: U.S. National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office. pp. IV:6-IV:83.


Blinman, E. and J. R. Cox
1996 Archaeomagnetic Dating Potential at the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Fort Carson, Colorado. Musuem of New Mexico.

Chomko, Stephen A., Lucy Annis Gange, and Ted Roesgen

1986     Documentation and Termination of the University of Denver Cultural Resource         

Bibliography of archeological and cultural studies done in the area

Archeological Conservancy

Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation

Comanche Grasslands Forest Service study coming September 24-29, 2006

List of topo maps of Comanche National Grasslands

Detailed information on 7 recreation sites in Comanche National Grasslands

Colorado Historic Preservation


The Colorado Archaeological Society

Colorado Council of Professional Archeologists

Colorado Rock Art Association homepage

2005 Forest Service Roads report on Comanche and Cimmaron National Grasslands (PDF)

Complete disagreement with 2004 Comanche and Cimmaron Grasslands Plan by 14 groups (PDF)

Army PCMS Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement


Effects of Vehicles on Buried, High-Pressure Pipe

by John C. Potter, Member, ASCE, (Research Civ. Engr., USAE Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.)

Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 111, No. 3, May/June 1985, pp. 224-236                                      Permissions for Reuse    Purchase Information

Document type: Journal Paper
Discussion: by Samuel I. Hyman    (See full record)
Closure: (See full record)
Abstract: The mechanical effects of selected types of traffic on buried, high-pressure steel pipe are examined. A section of the Colorado Interstate Gas pipeline across Fort Carson's Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, which should be most susceptible to damage, is studied. The relationship between depth of cover and steel pipe deflection is clarified using field test results, with special emphasis on dynamic effects (impact factor). The results presented provide the technical basis for evaluating the feasibility of pipeline protection from anticipated traffic by earth cover.

Environmental research

Leuren Moret finds DU in Hawai'i where Army says it doens't use i (just like Ft. Carson and PCMS):

Army training film on hazards of Depleted Uranium:

Hydrostratigraphic Framework of the Raton, Vermejo, and Trinidad Aquifers in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

Vulnerability of Recently Recharged Ground Water in the High Plains Aquifer to Nitrate Contamination

Variability of Differences between Two Approaches for Determining Ground-Water Discharge and Pumpage, Including Effects of Time Trends, Lower Arkansas River Basin, Southeastern Colorado, 1998-2002

34 closed military bases on EPA list of worst toxic sites

MCCLELLAN AIR FORCE BASE (GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION)

CDC 1996 study of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

Map of Rocky Mountain Arsenal plumes of underground water contamination coming to PCMS

CDC study of Tooele Army Depot in Utah:

Sources and Extent of Groundwater Contamination at TEAD

The disposal of industrial wastes at TEAD has resulted in groundwater contamination underneath the depot. There are two primary contaminant plumes at TEAD: 1) the industrial waste lagoon, which has been designated the main plume, and 2) the northeastern area boundary plume. Although several contaminants have been detected, trichloroethylene (TCE) is the principal contaminant of concern because its extent and concentration in the two primary plumes is considerably greater than the extent and concentrations of other contaminants detected (e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride).

Industrial Waste Lagoon (Main) Plume

The main plume is the larger of the two groundwater plumes identified at TEAD and is approximately 1.9 miles at its widest point. This plume appears to originate in the southeastern portion of the TEAD industrial area. The most significant sources for this plume are the IWL and associated unlined wastewater ditches, the old IWL, the sanitary landfill, a trench near Building 609 (SWMU 49), and numerous buildings in the TEAD maintenance area, including Buildings 600, 604, 607, 611, 614, 615, 619, 620, and, 637 (Kleinfelder 1998a, 2000).

It is estimated that the downgradient end of the main plume is approximately 1,500 feet north of the northern TEAD boundary, at least 400 feet thick, and contains approximately 36 billion gallons of groundwater with TCE concentrations greater than 5 ppb. Natural movement of the contaminant plume is estimated to be between 700 and 1,200 feet per year (Kleinfelder 2000; Montgomery 1988).

POLLUTION HAZARDS FROM SPORTING SHOOTING RANGES: ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

Lead Pollution at Outdoor Firing Ranges

Weathering of Lead Bullets and Their Environmental Effects at Outdoor Shooting Ranges
Cao, X.; Ma, L.Q.; Chen, Ming; Hardison, D.W.,Jr.; Harris, W.G.
Journal of Environmental Quality. Vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 526-534. Apr. 2003

Lead contamination at shooting range soils is of great environmental concern. This study focused on weathering of lead bullets and its effect on the environment at five outdoor shooting ranges in Florida, USA. Soil, plant, and water samples were collected from the ranges and analyzed for total Pb and/or toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Pb. Selected bullet and berm soil samples were mineralogically analyzed with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrocerussite [Pb sub(3)(CO sub(3)) sub(2)(OH) sub(2)] was found in both the weathered crusts and berm soils in the shooting ranges with alkaline soil pH. For those shooting ranges with acidic soil pH, hydrocerussite, cerussite (PbCO sub(3)), and small amount of massicot (PbO) were predominantly present in the weathered crusts, but no lead carbonate mineral was found in the soils. However, hydroxypyromorphite [(Pb sub(10)(PO sub(4)) sub(6) (OH) sub(2)] was formed in a P-rich acidic soil, indicating that hydroxypyromorphite can be a stable mineral in P-rich shooting range soil. Total Pb and TCLP Pb in the soils from all five shooting ranges were significantly elevated with the highest total Pb concentration of 1.27 to 4.84% (w/w) in berm soils. Lead concentrations in most sampled soils exceeded the USEPA's critical level of 400 mg Pb kg super(-1) soil. Lead was not detected in subsurface soils in most ranges except for one, where elevated Pb up to 522 mg kg super(-1) was observed in the subsurface, possibly due to enhanced solubilization of organic Pb complexes at alkaline soil pH. Elevated total Pb concentrations in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] (up to 806 mg kg super(-1) in the aboveground parts) and in surface water (up to 289 mu g L super(-1)) were observed in some ranges. Ranges with high P content or high cation exchange capacity showed lower Pb mobility. Our research clearly demonstrates the importance of properly managing shooting ranges to minimize adverse effects of Pb on the environment.

Soil and Sediment Contamination (formerly Journal of Soil Contamination)
Volume 11, Number 1/January-February 2002
Ming Chen, Samira H. Daroub, Lena Q. Ma, Willie G. Harris, Xinde Cao
Characterization of Lead in Soils of a Rifle/Pistol Shooting Range in Central Florida, USA


The distribution of lead in soil samples collected from both surface (0 to 10 cm) and profile (O 0 to 10 cm, E 11 to 30 cm, Eb 31 to 50 cm, Bw 51 to 100 cm, and C 181 to 200 cm) at a 14-year-old rifle/pistol shooting range located in central Florida were determined using EPA Method 3051a (microwave, HNO3/HCl=3:1, v/v). In addition to total lead analysis, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analysis was performed on corresponding samples to determine whether the soils would require special handling as hazardous waste if the soils were to be removed from the range. Total lead in surface soils varied from 330 to 17 850 mg Pb kg−1, with the greatest concentration in the middle of the backstop berm. The TCLP tests indicated that lead in all surface soils exceeded the 5 mg Pb L−1 critical level of federal regulation for solid wastes and hazardous wastes provided by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and would be characterized as hazardous waste. Sequential fractionation and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that lead carbonate existed predominantly (91.3%) in the berm soil. The weathering of lead bullets in the soil environments formed primarily as hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), with small amounts of massicot (PbO) and cerussite (PbCO3). However, the elevated soil pH, caused by the oxidization and transformation process of elemental lead in lead bullets, could be a significant factor in limiting the migration of lead in the soil.


So-Called "Green Ammo"

Army's answwer on it's so-called "green ammo" PROVES the pollution caused by Tunsten/Nylon:

Q: Is Tungsten mixed with Nylon being studied, as opposed to a study on pure Tungsten?


A: The Vicksburg studies involved Tungsten-Nylon ammunition. These studies revealed that, upon impact, the projectiles fragmented into fine particles that were mobile thru the soil. During this study, a soluble form of tungsten (Sodium Tungstate) was found implying that a bio-available form of tungsten was present. Previous studies had identified tungsten as a non-soluble material that would indicate no health risks. As a worst case scenario, the CHPPM work currently being performed, as described above, is focused on investigating the effects of sodium tungstate.

Study proving Tungsten alloy bullets cause Rhabdomyosarcomas 100% of the time

Report from Forensic site FireArms ID on Oak Ridge National Labs production of Tungsten alloy bullets

Army's LIES #1 on Tungsten "green ammo"

Army's LIES #2 on Tungsten "green ammo"
Report on Army using 13% of world's entire Tungsten production for bullets

Australian report on gun ranges and Lead pollution of creeks used for cattle

(excerpt from the above Australian Study, on LEAD from firing ranges)

A highly relevant document is the Guidance Document for Lead in Shellfish that has been produced by U. S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition (1993). This document clearly states “Presently, there are no levels of lead exposure for children or adults at which it may be considered that no adverse effects occur.” This view is becoming stronger; for example the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 2002 states, “There is no evidence for a threshold below which lead has no adverse health effects. Blood lead levels previously considered safe are now known to cause subtle, chronic health effects. The health effects of lead exposure include developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and toxicity to the kidneys, blood and endocrine systems ”

(Sanborn et al 2002).

Effects in humans were first noticed from exposures at the workplace. Ironically sufferers include firearms instructors, whose sperm count is inversely related to the extent of their lead poisoning (Fisher-Fischbein et al 1987). Subsequently it has been realised that neural development in fetuses and growing children is even more sensitive to lead than is adult health.

(Bryce–Smith and Ward 1987)

In children, brain development is particularly sensitive and in fetuses even levels below 10 microgram Pb/dl in umbilical cord blood have been reported to adversely affect neurobehavioural development. In children there is an inverse relation of blood lead concentrations and all cognitive function scores: reading, mathematics and short-term memory, at blood lead concentrations as low as 2.5 micrograms per deciliter. [0.025 micrograms per ml]

(Lanphear et al 2002)

A further source of toxicity to humans is the incorporation of lead into livestock that become contaminated. As in humans, all body tissues of farmed animals become affected (Edwards and Gregory 1991), but this is wasted effort if water used on pastures is taken from polluted creeks. Repercussions on the lucrative beef export market are considered later.

The USA EPA report on Best Management Practice for lead at Outdoor Shooting Ranges (2001) states, “lead dissolved in acid groundwater can travel many miles without change”.

“It is strongly recommended that ranges……avoid shooting over or into wetlands”, and explains “waters may include, lakes, ponds, rivers streams, wetlands, or even cuts that are frequently dry, which may not be obvious.”


USGS Meteorological Gauges from Pinon Canyon (real time and daily charts):

Bear Spring Hills near Houghton
Brown Sheep Canyon near Tyrone
Burson Well near Thatcher
Cantonment near cemetary at Simpson
Cantonment Windmill near Tyrone
Colorado Interstate Gas pipeline near Simpson
Gutierrez Windmill near Model
Mincic station near Houghton
Rourke station near Higbee
Route Two station near Tyrone
Upper Bent Canyon near Delhi
Upper Red Rock Canyon near Houghton;